Demyelinating diseases of the nervous system are a group of pathologies characterized by damage to the myelin sheaths of neurons, which leads to a weakening or complete cessation of nerve impulse transmission and the development of neurological disorders. The process can spread to the central and peripheral nervous system (CNS and PNS).
This disease group includes:
• opticoneuromyelitis, or Devic's disease;
• multiple sclerosis;
• multiple encephalomyelitis;
• acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.
The pathology progresses rapidly and depending on the localization of the lesion can be accompanied by different manifestations, up to the disorder of vital functions - hearing, vision, speech, etc. Therefore, it is important to know the first signs and if they appear, immediately go to see a specialist.
Symptoms and Signs
The clinical picture is determined by which part of the CNS or PNS is affected, so it is difficult to identify common signs of demyelination. The most common condition is multiple sclerosis, which is characterized by:
• cognitive disorders – decreased memory, performance, attention;
• paralysis of the eye muscles;
• muscle spasms;
• increased tendon reflexes;
• visual impairment;
• attacks of dizziness;
• coordination disorder;
• sexual dysfunction;
• urinary incontinence, etc.
When demyelinating changes spread to the PNS, limb paresis, joint pain, heart rhythm disorder, blood pressure fluctuations, etc. are observed.