Mitochondrial dysfunction is a group of pathological conditions that develop due to a disorder of cell energy and are characterized by lesions of the central nervous system, immune system, muscles, gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, and other internal organs.
Mitochondria are tiny structures located in almost all body cells. They are the parts of the cell that are responsible for energy synthesis. They do this by generating adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the main fuel for all body cells. For this reason, mitochondria are often called the "powerhouse" of the cell.
There can be up to several thousand mitochondria in a single cell. Brain and muscle cells are among those that need a lot of energy, so they have a particularly high density of mitochondria for their energy needs. When mitochondria function poorly, the body's cells function poorly accordingly.